The Eastern Palearctic steppes of Eurasia extend from approximately 40 ° to 60 ° N latitude and from 50 ° to 130 ° E longitude encompassing a wide variety of plant species and geologic features within the countries of Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Russian Federation. Four zones of steppe vegetation are commonly recognized from North to South with moisture levels decreasing the further South one goes. The zones include meadow steppe, true steppe (bunch grass steppe with many forbs and a semiarid climate), semi-desert steppe (bunch grasses and dwarf half-shrub-bunch-grass) and desert steppe (dwarf half-shrub-bunch-grass). Much of the steppe has been heavily influenced by human activities, such as grazing of domestic livestock and tillage. Extensive research on natural, undisturbed vegetation communities has been conducted at field stations and reserves in Kazakhstan and Mongolia.