Mediterranean scrubland exists along the southern coast of Spain through the Almeria and Murcia provinces, and in the Eastern Anatolian montane steppe of Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Iran. The Mediterranean scrubland of Spain has a complex geology with areas like the Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park occurring on volcanic rock, while Cenozoic and Quaternary sedimentary rock dominate in the low plains and mid-elevation regions. Shrubs species within this area act as islands of fertility for the growth of grass and forb species. The Eastern Anatolian montane steppe sits at the ecological conflux of three biogeographic zones: Mediterranean, Lesser Caucasus and Iranian. Climatic variation and diversity of geography lead to high levels of heterogeneity in plant distribution and species composition.