The Persian shrublands occur in three continuous tracts of desert across modern day Iran, northern Afghanistan, southern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan, northern Iraq, Syria, and Jordan. Species within this ecotype range from sagebrush to saltland and psammophytic plants. These shrubland areas are arid with annual rainfall rarely exceeding 300 mm (12 in) with some regions, such as the central and eastern portions of the Iranian plateau, receiving a maximum of 50 mm (2 in) per year. Extreme hot and relative cold temperatures are found throughout the Persian shrublands with highs of 49 °C (120 °F) and lows of -32 °C (-25.6 °F). Daily variations can have high fluctuations with temperatures ranging from 0 °C (32 °F) in the morning to 32 °C (90 °F) by noon. The Persian shrublands have suffered extensive degradation due to decades of international and internal warfare.