Eurasian Semi-desert Savanna

Semi-desert savannas exist along the southern and western coasts of the Arabian Peninsula. Agriculture is a dominant feature in the landscape with hillsides being converted into thousands of terraces. Agriculture in the area was historically dominated by Arabic coffee (Coffea arabica), but khat (Catha edulis), an evergreen shrub whose leaves are chewed for their amphetamine-like stimulus, is replacing coffee as a primary cash crop. Three types of woodlands are distinguished in this area including the Mediterranean vegetation type, the southwestern Afromontane type and the eastern Omano-Makranian type. A few tree species in these vegetation zones are juniper (Juniperus spp), pistachio (Pistacia atlantica), oak (Quercus spp) and hawthorn (Crataegus spp).