North American High Arctic Tundra

The High Arctic extends from the northern limit of the Low Arctic up to the North Pole. Plants in the tundra regions of the High Arctic are characterized by herbaceous species and include sedge-moss, grass-moss, cushion plant-cryptogram, and cryptogram-herb communities. The High Arctic has much lower vegetative cover than the Low Arctic region with large expanses being dominated by mosses and lichens with only 5-25% cover of flowering plants. Distributions of these communities are constrained by severe temperatures and edaphic conditions. Soils associated with the High Arctic vegetation include shallow peats on gleyed soils, weakly developed Arctic Brown soils, and weakly developed Tundra soils.