Africa is the second largest continent in the world with over 50% of its landmass being classified as rangelands. Historically, many African tribes were nomadic, moving with the seasons and following native wildlife. The development of wells and permanent residences has led to an alteration in rangeland dynamics, with the temporal grazing by native herds being replaced by intensive, year-long grazing of livestock. Livestock have become necessary for peoples subsistence with domestic animal numbers rising between 2-4% each year. Approximately 60% of the African population lives in rural areas; however, urbanization levels of Africa are the highest in the world with rural-urban migration resulting from a decline in agricultural productivity, lack of jobs, and persistence of conflict and civil strife. Vulnerability of rural livelihoods is forecast to increase with climate change because of people's dependence on rain-fed agriculture.